JOPAG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION – INTEGRATED MOSQUITO REDUCTION INTERVENTION (JOPAG HEP-IMRI)jopagicc
Based on our detailed findings and study on mosquito prevalence in Northern Nigeria, the following were reached; we have confirmed the climate of Nigeria to be tropical, and majorly of the drier grassland Savanna type. Typical of tropical climatic conditions, the amounts and distribution of rainfall, as well as, mean annual temperature in this region, are such that, respectively, promote widespread proliferation of stable mosquito larval breeding habitats and optimum metabolic activities that enhance rapid mosquito vector and parasite development. These favourable climatic conditions, therefore, pre-dispose Nigeria to high mosquito vectorial capacity. However, the mean annual relative humidity in the region is much lower than required for significant extension of adult mosquito life span and foraging activities thus, attributing the present high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in the area, not only to clement climatic conditions but, perhaps, other environmental, anthropogenic and intrinsic biological drivers of disease transmission by the mosquito vectors.
The findings of this study have elucidated the potential influence of prevailing climatic conditions on the endemicity of epidemiologically important high mosquito population density in Northern Nigeria. It is from our new understanding of the potential inter-play among climatic conditions, anthropogenic activities and mosquito ecology, in relation to disease transmission, that we established a more reliable protocol for sustainable optimum impact in vector control interventions, based on timing and mosquito life stage target.
BASIC MOSQUITO BIO-ECOLOGY
All mosquitoes require standing water or moist soil to breed, but the type of water they prefer depends on the species. While, some mosquitoes prefer containers, such as tires, tree holes, buckets, and water troughs, others prefer water with lots of organic material (leaves, grass) that is very stagnant. Still others breed primarily in swamps and marshes, some fresh water, and some salt water. Which species are most important in disease transmission depends on the location, pathogen, and other animals (amplification hosts) involved. Control of these different types of mosquitoes obviously requires different approaches, due to significant variations in vectorial competencies and man-vector interactions from one area to another. Some can be affected by measures taken at individual stables, such as reducing or cleaning water holding containers. Other species, however, require more extensive management, such as impoundments, truck or aerial sprays, and treatment of ditches or other large bodies of water. After the aquatic stages, the adult mosquito emerges.
Female mosquitoes bite humans and animals, using the blood as a protein source to develop eggs. The eggs are laid in or near water, hatch (some require flooding, others hatch immediately), and begin larval development. Development from egg to adult can be completed in as little as 6-7 days in the warmest season. Some species will bite almost any type of animal, while others are very host specific. Different species vary in their preferred time to feed, but many feed intense during dawn or early hours of the night. Mosquitoes tend to bite anywhere on the host, unlike some other flies which concentrate on the midline, face or legs.